What is a cataract?
A cataract is a clouding of the lens of the eye due to changes in proteins that make up the lens. As we age, the lens thickens and hardens. Certain factors can cause cataracts to develop more quickly such as ultraviolet radiation (UV rays) smoking, diabetes, steroids, and nutrition deficiency. Even the most healthy and active individuals will likely develop cataracts at some point in their lives.
How often should patients get a comprehensive eye exam?
The interval of time between eye exams greatly depends on the health of the eye. For children and even adults in their 20s and 30s, it is usually sufficient to get a comprehensive eye exam every few years. Once patients reach the age of 50, I suggest an annual comprehensive eye exam.
There are instances where patients may need to have multiple eye exams per year to monitor one or two specific issues. For example, for patients who have macular degeneration, it may be necessary to dilate the eyes every 4-6 months to examine the health of the retina. Routine pressure checks are important for those who suffer from glaucoma, but it is probably not essential to do a complete eye exam. I see these patients on a more individualized schedule based on the severity of their disease.
What are signs and symptoms of cataracts?
Some of the signs and symptoms of cataracts are cloudy or blurred vision, sensitivity to glare, seeing halos around lights, colors appearing faded or yellowed, and double vision. Cataracts can make daily activities like reading, watching television, driving, distance vision and night vision more difficult. When cataracts are in advanced stages, you may see the telltale discolored pupil that can look gray or white. In the United States, most cases of cataracts do not progress to this level, but it is very common to see visible cataracts in third world countries.
Can cataracts be treated?
Cataracts are one of the most treatable eye diseases. This is good news because most people will start developing cataracts in their late 50s or early 60s. Most adults will not have their cataracts removed until they are in their late 60s or early 70s but it is generally just a matter of time. The thick, hardened lens can be surgically removed and replaced with a lens made out of plastic or silicone. In one surgical procedure and a short recovery time, most vision issues due to cataracts can be greatly improved.
What are some common myths and misconceptions about cataracts?
Until you have a better understanding of what a cataract is and how it is treated, there are many misconceptions about cataracts. One of the most humorous misconceptions, which is quite common, is that some people think that their doctor will take out their eyeball, remove the cataract and put the eye back in the socket. I assure you that this is not how cataract surgery is performed! Most cataract surgeries can be successfully completed with a tiny incision of 2.2-2.5 mm in length.
Another myth about the method of cataract removal is that some patients think the cataract will just come to the surface of their eye and the doctor will scrape it off. In fact, the cataract is not on top of your eye, although in advanced stages it may appear to be. It is located on the lens of the eye, behind the iris or colored part of the eye. A small incision is made in the eye to remove the cataract.
Many people might think that their cataracts may be too advanced and are inoperable. Even if you have hand motion vision (a situation where a patient can recognize a hand being waved, but he or she cannot count the fingers on the hand), cataract removal can provide you with excellent vision, but each case is unique and the vision outcome is often dependent on the overall health of the eye.
What are some common questions that patients have about cataract surgery?
Anytime that the eyes are involved, there are always a lot of questions. I actually think it is important that my patients ask as many questions as they need to so they can understand more about the procedure. Here are some of the most common questions I receive from patients and their answers:
- Is cataract surgery inpatient or outpatient surgery? All cataract surgeries are outpatient and you will go home the same day.
- Will I be asleep for the surgery? You may be asleep, but you will not be under general anesthesia. The sedative that we administer will make you feel relaxed, much like the sedative you receive for a colonoscopy.
- Is cataract surgery painful? You should not feel any pain during the surgery. After the procedure, it is common to experience a small amount of swelling, blurred vision and a scratchy sensation. All of these symptoms will go away after a short time.
- How long does the surgery take? The actual surgery takes about 15 minutes, on average, although the entire time you spend at the center will be about 2 to 3 hours. The preparation for surgery takes the majority of the time.
- Can I drive myself home? You cannot drive yourself home, but most patients can drive within 1-2 days of surgery. I tell my patients not to drive to their post-op visit on the day following surgery, but after that visit, I clear most of my patients to drive.
- What restrictions will I have after surgery? I tell my patients to not lift or bend for one week, and to not rub their eyes for at least a month. It sounds difficult to not rub your eyes for an entire month, but rubbing the eyes can cause some pain which serves as a natural reminder.
- Will I have stitches in my eye/eyes after surgery? Most patients do not need stitches after cataract surgery, but I do not promise my patients that they will not need stitches. A well-sealed incision is imperative at the end of the case and so if a stitch is necessary I will definitely use it. In most cases, stitches are not necessary.
What new research and products are available for cataracts?
Much of the new research into cataracts has to do with the technology that is emerging to help treat cataracts surgically. The ability to customize the type of lens that I insert into the eye provides patients with more options than in years past. We now have lenses that can correct both near and distance vision at the same time, as well as lenses that correct astigmatism.
The entire process of removing a cataract is very sophisticated now. The deteriorated lens is broken up into tiny fragments using a method called phacoemulsification and removed from the eye, creating space for a new, artificial lens called an intraocular lens (IOL).
An IOL is generally made out of plastic, and it is folded up like a burrito. Using the incision that I used to remove the old lens, I insert the folded IOL into the eye and it opens up in that space. Ten years ago, there were few options for IOLs and we only had single distance lenses. Now, there are multifocal IOLs, which act like no-line bifocal glasses and Toric IOLs that can correct multiple issues simultaneously.
One of the most exciting advancements in cataract surgery is that cataract surgery can be performed in conjunction with glaucoma surgery. What used to be two separate procedures now can be combined into one surgery in two parts. It is not uncommon, as people age, to develop both cataracts and glaucoma. Today, there are devices like the iStent which can help lower eye pressure for glaucoma patients. This device carries less risk and can hopefully prevent the need for trabeculectomy or other more invasive surgeries. I prefer doing the cataract surgery first and then inserting the iStent at the end of the procedure. The iStent has been shown to be helpful at blunting the pressure spikes that are common to glaucoma patients after cataract surgery.
There are also devices that are currently in clinical trials which will likely enhance and improve cataract surgery and glaucoma surgery outcomes. There is a newer generation iStent that is easier to place, and other stenting devices called CyPass and Hydrus. There is also another type of device called the XEN Implant. All of these devices are intended to help drain fluid from the eye.
What can you tell me about laser cataract surgery and how it differs from the traditional surgery option?
I use the laser to remove some cataracts but certainly not all cataracts. The laser is an impressive tool that makes precise cuts, and it is especially useful for a patient who has significant astigmatism or when I am inserting a premium intraocular lens. For patients with severe astigmatism, the laser can help reduce the need for glasses.
I reserve laser cataract surgery for patients with astigmatism or presbyopia to help reduce the need for glasses. When it is necessary, the laser offers the precision that the human hand cannot match. However, with small incision cataract surgery, incisions are so small that it is not necessary to use a laser in most cases.
Who should consider getting cataract surgery?
As we age, most of us will develop a cataract in one or both eyes. When I tell my patients that they are developing a cataract, it often surprises them. This is because cataracts tend to develop very gradually. I explain to my patients that, over time, they will notice that they struggle with distance vision and night vision, as well as the presence of halos and glare.
Cataracts are not a problem until they begin infringing on our daily lives and affect our ability to read a book, drive a car, or see clearly at night. When my patients feel like cataracts are affecting their daily lives, I encourage them to consider surgery. When cataracts have gotten to the point where a patient is not legal to drive, I try to convince them to get cataract surgery.
What are the benefits of cataract surgery?
The best benefit of cataract surgery is that it can restore your vision. It is one of the best and most accurate surgeries performed worldwide, and it gets you back doing the things you want to do. When you cannot see clearly, your activities and hobbies are restricted. Cataract surgery gives you your life back. It can also prevent injury and actually keep you safe. The Journal of the American Medical Association released a study in 2012 detailing the reduced risk of hip fracture in seniors after cataract surgery. In essence, you are safer on your feet and safer behind the wheel when you see better.
What are the risks with cataract surgery?
There are few risks associated with cataract surgery, but all surgical procedures have some risk. The most severe risks are infection (1 in 1000), retinal tear (1 in about 250), and bleeding (extremely rare). There are several common occurrences following cataract surgery that are unpleasant but less of a risk. These can include eye floaters, seeing flashing lights for a week or two, and feelings of scratchiness.
Some patients may develop a “secondary cataract” later on. It is not actually a cataract but the scarring of the capsule that holds the lens. All cataracts are contained in a capsule of sorts, and when the cataract is removed, the capsule stays intact except for an incision where the cataract was removed. A secondary cataract forms when the capsule that contained the cataract tries to grow back and scar tissue begins to obstruct vision. If a patient has similar complaints of blurred vision, I can perform a laser procedure called a YAG capsulotomy to restore clear vision.
The final risk is more of an inconvenience than anything else. There is sometimes a small amount of general discomfort after cataract surgery, but Tylenol is usually sufficient to ease any mild pain for the first night after surgery.
Will I need reading glasses after cataract surgery?
Every eye is different, which makes each patient a unique case. Depending on the IOL lens a patient will choose, some may experience a period of time after surgery when they do not require corrective lenses, but someday they will probably need to wear glasses again. Our bodies change, and our eyes change. Certain patients may only need glasses for distance vision and driving, and others may only need glasses for reading. I do not promise my patients specific results after surgery because nothing is permanent. Contrary to what some people may think, cataract surgeons do not replace one type of intraocular lens with another type of lens years later. It is possible but not routinely done. If your eyesight changes and you need more than what your IOL can provide, you will need to supplement with glasses.
If I have astigmatism, what are my options with cataract surgery?
Astigmatism is a common eye condition characterized by an irregularly shaped cornea which results in blurred vision. There are several options for patients who have both cataracts and astigmatism. For patients with milder astigmatism, I may use a procedure called limbal relaxing incisions (LRI). LRI involves mapping the cornea and making small, partial thickness incisions in the peripheral cornea at certain depths and diameters which allows the cornea to be more rounded when it heals. This, in turn, reduces astigmatism and sharpens the vision. There are two ways of performing the LRI. It can be done by hand with a diamond blade or with a laser.
The femtosecond laser is effective in correcting the shape of the cornea in patients with lower level astigmatism. The advantage of the femtosecond laser is in its precision. The laser can make cuts of very specific depths and lengths that cannot be replicated by the human hand. It works by generating ultrashort pulses, using low energy which prevents tissue damage.
Another treatment for patients with more pronounced astigmatism is a Toric intraocular lens (IOL), which helps correct distortions due to the shape of the cornea. This is probably my favorite technology available. I see such positive effects of Toric IOLs in patients who previously had limited vision and had to wear fairly thick glasses or saw poorly out of their soft contact lenses.
What would you say to patients who are considering cataract surgery?
I always tell my patients about the benefits and risks of surgery, and I remind them that removing a cataract is their decision.
The most important thing that I want my patients to keep in mind is to have realistic expectations. I cannot promise life-changing results, but almost everyone experiences improved vision after cataract surgery.
Many patients have an erroneous assumption that cataract surgery will eliminate their need for glasses. I make no promises to my patients because our eyes will continue to change as we get older. The corneal curvature can change, or the patient may develop another eye condition like glaucoma or macular degeneration. Any of these factors could influence their need for eyeglasses. I would tell a patient that cataract surgery can greatly reduce the need for glasses, but no one should expect that cataract surgery is a fix-all that will eliminate the need for glasses either immediately after surgery or years down the road.
What have been some of the most rewarding experiences you have had as a cataract specialist?
I have been able to be a part of several missions trips to help patients with eye diseases like glaucoma, pterygium and cataracts. We spent the majority of our time treating cataracts because in third world countries there are so many individuals who really cannot see anything because of this easily fixable problem. Once you remove the cataract, they can see amazingly well. It is very rewarding to get to be a part of helping people see what they need to in order to live their lives independently both on mission trips and at home.
Another experience that comes to mind occurred just two weeks ago. I operated on a patient who had a condition called amblyopia. This is a vision problem where the sight never fully develops as a child for one of a couple reasons. In her case, my patient had a large disparity between the glasses prescription in her two eyes and had significantly decreased vision in her left eye. She had never seen better than 20/200 best corrected in her entire life. I performed cataract surgery on her and placed the highest power Toric IOL available in her left eye and the day after surgery she saw the 20/40 line on the chart without glasses. My patient was nearly in tears as I told her she was legal to drive without glasses. She said she had never seen this well out of her left eye even with glasses or contacts.
Dr. Taylor received his Doctor of Medicine from the University of Iowa and completed his internship in general surgery as well as his Ophthalmology residency at the University of Kentucky. He has been a part of the Ophthalmology Group in Paducah, Kentucky, since 2005 and practices general ophthalmology.